Chapter 6

Tail Design

Table of Contents

Chapter 6. 1

Tail Design. 1

6.1. Introduction. 1

6.2. Aircraft Trim Requirements. 5

6.2.1. Longitudinal Trim.. 6

6.2.2. Directional and Lateral Trim.. 13

6.3. A Review on Stability and Control 14

6.3.1. Stability. 15

6.3.2. Control 20

6.3.3. Handling Qualities. 21

6.4. Tail configuration. 21

6.4.1. Basic Tail Configuration. 21

6.4.2. Aft Tail Configuration. 25

6.5. Canard or Aft Tail 31

6.6. Optimum Tail Arm.. 35

6.7. Horizontal Tail Parameters. 38

6.7.1. Horizontal Tail Design Fundamental Governing Equation. 38

6.7.2. Fixed, All Moving, or Adjustable. 41

6.7.3. Airfoil Section. 42

6.7.4. Tail Incidence. 45

6.7.5. Aspect Ratio. 48

6.7.6. Taper Ratio. 49

6.7.7. Sweep Angle. 49

6.7.8. Dihedral Angle. 50

6.7.9. Tail Vertical Location. 50

6.7.10. Other Tail Geometries. 52

6.7.11. Control Provision. 52

6.7.12. Final Check. 53

6.8. Vertical Tail Design. 54

6.8.1. Vertical Tail Design Requirements. 54

6.8.2. Vertical Tail Parameters. 55

6.9. Practical Design Steps. 65

6.10. Tail Design Example. 67

Problems. 73

References. 77