Table of Contents

 

Chapter 1

Atmosphere………………………………………………………………….....................3

1.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………...3

1.2. General Description of Atmosphere………………………………………………….4

1.3. Major Components……………………………………………………………………4

1.3.1. Oxygen and Nitrogen……………………………………………………….4

1.3.2. Carbon Dioxide……………………………………………………………. 4

1.3.3. Water Vapor……………………………………………………………......5

1.3.4. Aerosols………………………………………………………………….....6

1.3.5. Ozone…………………………………………………………………….....6

1.4. Atmosphere Layers…………………………………………………………………...7

1.4.1. Troposphere………………………………………………………………...7

1.4.2. Stratosphere…………………………………………………………………8

1.4.3. Mesosphere………………………………………………………………....8

1.4.4. Thermosphere………………………………………………………………9

1.4.5. Exosphere or Ionosphere……………………………………………..…….9

1.5. International Standard Atmosphere………………………………………………….9

1.6. Parameters Calculation……………………………………………………………...13

1.6.1. Temperature……………………………………………………………….14

1.6.2. Pressure…………………………………………………………………....16

1.6.3. Air Density…………………………………………………………….......20

1.6.4. Viscosity………………………………………………………………......22

1.7. Humidity………………………………………………………………………….....22

1.8. Altitude and its Measurement……………………………………………….25

1.8.1. Pressure Altimeter…………………………………………………………27

1.8.2. Radar Altimeter……………………………………………………………28

1.8.3. Global Positioning System (GPS)…………………………………………29

1.9. Speed of Sound………………………………………………………………….......30

1.10. Atmospheric Phenomena…………………………………………………………..33

1.10.1. Rain and Snow…………………………………………………………..33

1.10.2. Wind……………………………………………………………………..35

1.10.3. Gust and Disturbance…………………………………………………….37

1.10.4. Thunderstorm, Tornado and Hurricane………………………………….37

1.10.5. Lighting………………………………………………………………………….39

Problems…………………………………………………………………………………41

References…………………………………………………………………………….....43

Aircraft Performance Analysis iv

 

Chapter 2

Equations of Motion……………………………………………………………………45

2.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………45

2.2. Aerodynamic Forces………………………………………………………………...47

2.3. Governing Equations of Motion of Aircraft…………………………………….......53

2.3.1. Coordinate System…………………………………………………….......53

2.3.2. Classifications of Aircraft Motions………………………………………..54

2.3.2.1. Acceleration……………………………………………………..54

2.3.2.2. Flight Operation Phases…………………………………………55

2.3.2.3. General Classifications………………………………………….56

2.3.3. Steady-State Flight………………………………………………………..61

2.3.3.1. Equations of Motion for Steady State Rectilinear Flight………..61

2.3.3.2. Equations of Motion for Steady State Level Turning Flight……61

2.3.3.3. Equations of Motion for Steady Symmetrical Pull-up………......62

2.4. Application of Newton’s Second Law to Flight Phases…………………………….63

2.4.1. Straight Line Flight………………………………………………………..63

2.4.2 Climbing Flight…………………………………………………………….66

2.4.3. Take Off…………………………………………………………………...68

2.5. True and Equivalent Air Speed……………………………………………………...69

2.5.1. Air Speed Measurement…………………………………………………...69

2.5.2. The Air Speed Indicator……………………………………………….......70

2.5.3. Air Speed Indicator Corrections………………………………………......71

2.5.4. Air Speed and Ground Speed……………………………………………...72

2.5.5. The Unit of Airspeed………………………………………………...........74

2.6. Stall Speed…………………………………………………………………………..75

Problems…………………………………………………………………………………80

References……………………………………………………………………………….83

 

Chapter 3

Drag Force and Drag Coefficient……………………………………………………...85

3.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………85

3.2. Drag Classification………………………………………………………………….86

3.3. Drag Polar……………………………………………………………………..........90

3.4. Calculation of CDo………………………………………………………………….93

3.4.1. Fuselage……………………………………………………………..........95

3.4.2. Wing, Horizontal Tail, and Vertical Tail………………………………….97

3.4.3. High Lift Devices…………………………………………………………99

3.4.4 Landing Gear……………………………………………………………..101

3.4.5. Strut……………………………………………………………………....102

3.4.6. Nacelle…………………………………………………………………...103

3.4.7. Cooling Drag…………………………………………………………….103

3.4.8. Trim Drag………………………………………………………………..104

3.4.9. CDo of Other Parts………………………………………………………..105

3.4.10. Overall CDo……………………………………………………………..110

Aircraft Performance Analysis v

3.5. Wave Drag………………………………………………………………………..111

3.5.1. Exact Method………………………………………………………….. 112

3.5.2. Approximate Approach…………………………………………………115

3.6. CDo at various Configurations…………………………………………………….116

3.6.1. Clean Configuration…………………………………………………… 117

3.6.2. Take-Off Configuration…………………………………………….......117

3.6.3. Landing Configuration………………………………………………….117

3.6.4. The Effect of Speed and Altitude on CDo……………………………….118

Problems……………………………………………………………………………… 122

References……………………………………………………………………………. 126

 

Chapter 4

Thrust Force…………………………………………………………...........................127

4.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………..127

4.2. Aircraft Engine Classification……………………………………………..............128

4.3. Piston or Reciprocating Engine................................................................................131

4.3.1. Piston Engine Variations………………………………………………. 132

4.3.2. Piston Engine Performance……………………………………………..133

4.3.3. Supercharged Piston Engines………………………………………….. 136

4.4. Turbine Engine……………………………………………………………………138

4.4.1. Turbojet Engine………………………………………………………... 139

4.4.2. Turbofan Engine……………………………………………………….. 142

4.4.3. Turboprop Engine……………………………………………………….146

4.4.4. Turboshaft Engine………………………………………………………148

4.4.5. Ramjet Engine…………………………………………………………. 150

4.4.6. Rocket Engine…………………………………………………………. 152

4.5. Engine Performance Criteria…………………………………………………….. 155

4.5.1. Engine Efficiency……………………………………………………… 156

4.5.2. Engine Performance at Various Altitudes and Speeds………………… 159

4.5.3. Specific Fuel Consumption……………………………………………. 165

4.6. Engine Performance Calculation………………………………………………… 169

4.6.1. Flat Rating………………………………………………………………169

4.6.2. Variation of Power and Thrust with Aircraft Speed……………………172

4.6.2.1 Piston Engine and Turboprop Engine…………………………172

4.6.2.2 Turbojet Engine………………………………………………. 173

4.6.2.3 Turbofan Engine……………………………………………… 174

4.6.3 Variations of Power and Thrust with Altitude…………………………. 176

4.6.3.1. Piston Engine………………………………………………… 176

4.6.3.2. Turbojet Engine……………………………………………… 177

4.6.3.3. Turbofan Engine……………………………………………... 179

4.6.3.4. Turboprop Engine……………………………………………. 180

4.6.4 Variations of Specific Fuel Consumption with Altitude……………….. 181

4.6.4.1. Piston Engine and Turboprop Engine………………………... 181

4.6.4.2. Turbojet Engine and Turbofan Engine………………………..182

4.6.5. Variations of Specific Fuel Consumption with Speed…………………. 183

Aircraft Performance Analysis vi

4.6.5.1. Piston Engine………………………………………………… 183

4.6.5.2. Turbojet Engine……………………………………………… 183

4.6.5.3. Turbofan Engine……………………………………………... 184

4.6.5.4. Turboprop Engine……………………………………………..184

4.7. Propeller Performance…………………………………………………………….185

4.7.1. Definitions………………………………………………………………185

4.7.2. Calculation……………………………………………………………....189

4.7.2.1. Momentum Theory…………………………………………....189

4.7.2.2. Practical Use of Propeller Charts……………………………..191

Problems……………………………………………………………………………….195

References……………………………………………………………………………..198

 

Chapter 5

Straight Level Flight – Jet Aircraft………………………………….………………199

5.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………. …199

5.2. Basic Equations………………………………………………………………….. 200

5.2.1. Steady-State Trim Equations…………………………………………... 201

5.2.2. Drag, Thrust and Velocity Relationship……………………………….. 203

5.2.3. Velocity and Angle of Attack Relationship…………………………… 205

5.2.4. Maximum Lift-to-Drag Ratio ( (L/D)max )…………………………….. 207

5.3. Specific Speeds in Straight Level Flight………………………………………… 210

5.3.1. Maximum Speed (Vmax)………………………………………………. .212

5.3.2. Cruise Speed (VC)………………………………………………………217

5.3.3. Minimum Drag Speed (VminD)……………………………………….. 220

5.4. Range ….………………………………………………………………………… 224

5.4.1. Definition……………………………………………………………….224

5.4.2. Calculation of Range……………………………………………………227

5.4.3. Speed for Maximum Range (VmaxR)…………………………………..236

5.4.4. Application Points………………………………………………………240

5.5. Endurance………………………………………………………………………... 246

5.5.1. The Definition of Endurance…………………………………………... 246

5.5.2. Maximum Endurance Velocity and Maximum Endurance……………. 248

5.5.3. Comparison between tmaxR and Emax…………………………………… 250

5.5.4. The Effect of Wind on Range and Endurance…………………………. 251

5.6. Ceiling…………………………………………………………………………….252

5.6.1. Definition……………………………………………………………….252

5.6.2. Calculation……………………………………………………………....255

Problems……………………………………………………………………………….258

References……………………………………………………………………………..262

Aircraft Performance Analysis vii

 

Chapter 6

Straight Level Flight - Prop-Driven Aircraft………………………………….…….263

6.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………..263

6.2. Basic Equations…………………………………………………………………....263

6.3. Specific Speeds………………………………………………………………….....265

6.3.1. Minimum Power Speed (VminP)………………………………………...266

6.3.2. Minimum Drag Speed (VminD)………………………………………….269

6.3.3. Maximum Speed (Vmax)……………………………………………….. 270

6.3.4. Cruise Speed (VC)………………………………………………………272

6.4. Range……………………………………………………………………………..273

6.4.1. Range Calculation………………………………………………………274

6.4.2. Maximum Range Speed (VmaxR)………………………………………278

6.5. Endurance…………………………………………………………………….......282

6.5.1. The Definition of Endurance………………………………………….282

6.5.2. Maximum Endurance Speed for Prop-Driven Aircraft……………….284

6.5.3. Maximum Endurance (Emax)……………………………………….....286

6.6. Ceiling……………………………………………………………………………287

6.6.1. Definition………………………………………………………………287

6.6.2. Ceiling Calculation for Piston-Prop Engine……………………………289

6.6.3. Ceiling Calculation for Turboprop Engine……………………………..291

6.7. Summary and Comparison……………………………………………………….293

Problems………………………………………………………………………………295

References…………………………………………………………………………….297

 

Chapter 7

Climb and Descent…………………………………………………………………….299

7.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………. ….299

7.2. Basic Fundamentals………………………………………………………………..300

7.3. General Equations of Motion……………………………………………………....306

7.4. Fastest Climb……………………………………………………………………....312

7.4.1. Jet Aircraft…………………………………………………………….....313

7.4.1.1. Calculation of Speed for Maximum Rate of Climb…………....314

7.4.1.2. Calculation of Climb Angle for Maximum Rate of Climb….....315

7.4.2. Propeller Driven Aircraft………………………………………………...318

7.4.2.1. Calculation of Speed for Maximum Rate of Climb…………....319

7.4.2.2. Calculation of Climb Angle for Maximum Rate of Climb….....321

7.5. Steepest Climb…………………………………………………………………… 322

7.5.1. Jet Aircraft……………………………………………………………... 326

7.5.2. Propeller Driven Aircraft………………………………………………. 329

7.5.2.1. Calculation of Aircraft Speed for Maximum Climb Angle…....330

7.5.2.2. Calculation of Maximum Climb Angle………………………..332

7.6. Most-Economical Climb…………………………………………………………...332

7.7. Time to Climb……………………………………………………………………...334

7.8. Descend…………………………………………………………………………....337

Aircraft Performance Analysis viii

7.9. Gliding Flight……………………………………………………………………....340

7.9.1. Gliding Flight with Maximum Ground Distance………………………...341

7.9.2. Gliding Flight with Maximum Flight Time……………………………...343

Problems………………………………………………………………………………..348

References……………………………………………………………………………...352

 

Chapter 8

Take Off and Landing………………………………………………………………..353

8.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………….353

8.2. Take Off Principles………………………………………………………………..354

8.3. Take Off Run Calculation………………………………………………………....363

8.3.1. Ground Segment……………………………………………………….. 363

8.3.2. Rotation Segment……………………………………………………….369

8.3.3. Airborne Segment………………………………………………………369

8.4. Landing…………………………………………………………………………...374

8.5. The Effect of Wind on Take Off and Landing…………………………………….378

8.5.1. Effect of Headwind on Take Off……………………………………….379

8.5.2. The Effect of Positive Slope on Take Off…………………………… ...381

Problems………………………………………………………………………………382

References………………………………………………………………………….. ..384

 

Chapter 9

Flight Maneuvers……………………………………………………………………..385

9.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………. …385

9.2. Turning Flight……………………………………………………………………..387

9.2.1. Fundamentals of Turning Flight…………………………………………387

9.2.2. Turn Performance - Jet Aircraft…………………………………………394

9.2.3. Turn Performance - Prop-Driven Aircraft…………………………........402

9.3. Maneuverability - Jet Aircraft…………………………………………………….406

9.3.1. Fastest Turn- Jet Aircraft………………………………………………. 407

9.3.2. Tightest Turn – Jet Aircraft……………………………………………..411

9.4. Maneuverability - Prop-Driven Aircraft…………………………………………. 418

9.4.1. Fastest Turn- Prop-Driven Aircraft……………………………………. 418

9.4.2. Tightest Turn- Prop-Driven Aircraft……………………………………420

9.5. Vertical Maneuvers……………………………………………………………….425

9.5.1. Pull-up…………………………………………………………………. 425

9.5.2. Pull-down……………………………………………………………… 426

9.6. V– n Diagram……………………………………………………………………. 427

9.6.1. Load Factor……………………………………………………………. 427

9.6.2. V – n Diagram without Gust Effect…………………………………… 429

9.6.3. Gust V – n Diagram…………………………………………………….431

9.6.4. Combined V – n Diagram………………………………………………433

Problems……………………………………………………………………………… 440

References……………………………………………………………………………. 442

Aircraft Performance Analysis ix

 

Appendix

Appendix A: Standard Atmosphere, SI Units……………………………………….....444

Appendix B: Standard Atmosphere, English Units…………………………………....445

Appendix C: Performance Characteristics of Several Aircraft………………………..446

Appendix D: Flight Records…………………………………………………………...450

Appendix E: A Typical Project for Students…………………………………………..455